A soil amendment refers to any material added to the soil to improve the physical or chemical properties. Biological soil amendments are those that include ingredients of plant, animal, or human origin.
- Soil Amendments Overview (Cornell University, PDF 396 KB) This document includes definitions of different types of soil amendments (inorganic and biological), a flow chart to assist you in deciding how to manage soil amendments on your farm, and example records to document soil amendment application.
- Biological Soil Amendments of Animal Origin (BSAAO) (Kansas State Research & Extension, PDF 468 KB)
- Fully cooked compost: How Food Safety Modernization Act defines Treated vs Untreated BSAAO (Michigan State University Extension Produce Safety, YouTube video)
- BSAAO: Manner of Application Requirements & Examples (Vermont Agency of Agriculture, PDF 359 KB)
Composting is a process to reduce harmful bacteria in manure and other biological feedstocks. The process must be monitored to ensure that specific time and temperature intervals are met to ensure safety. Composting requires oxygen, so turning or aeration is required. A static pile of manure is not composted.
- The US Composting Council Provides information to those producing compost and those using compost on best practices.
- FSMA Compliant On-Farm Thermophilic Composting: A Safe Way to Enrich the Soil (North Central Region, Center for FSMA Training, Extension & Technical Assistance, PDF 1.7 MB) This factsheet discusses the validated biological decomposition process that is laid out in the FSMA Produce Safety Rule under section §112.55(b).
- The Do’s and Don’ts of Manure Management and Clean Water (California Dairy Quality Assurance Program, PDF 1.0 MB)
Non-manure based soil amendments of animal origin
- Bone meal, blood meal, feather meal, and fish emulsion